Causes of Eczema on Skin and How to Take Care of it

What are the Main Causes Behind Eczema and What can be done to prevent it

Causes of Eczema on Skin and How to Take Care of it
Eczema is a condition in which skin patches become swollen, itchy, cracked, and rough. Some types can also cause blisters.

Different types and stages of eczema affect 30 million+ people in the United States, accounting for more than 10% of the population.

Many people use the term eczema to refer to atopic dermatitis, the most common type. Atopic actually refers to a collection of conditions of the immune system, including atopic dermatitis, hay fever, and asthma. Dermatitis means inflammation of the skin.

Some foods, such as nuts and dairy, can trigger symptoms. Environmental triggers include smoke, pollen, soap, and fragrances. Eczema is not contagious.

Some people overtake this condition, while others will continue it during adulthood.

This article will explain what eczema is and discuss its symptoms, treatments, causes, and types.

Type of Eczema

There are several types of eczema. Apart from atopic dermatitis, other types include:

Allergic contact dermatitis

It is a skin reaction that occurs after exposure to a substance or allergen that identifies the immune system as foreign.

Dyshidrotic eczema

It refers to skin irritation on the soles of hands and feet. It is characterized by blisters.


It causes crooked bumps of skin, forearms, wrists, and lower legs on the head. It is caused by a local itching, such as from insect bites.

Discid eczema

Also known as sensory eczema, this type presents as circular patches of irritable skin that may cause crust, scaly, and itching.

Stasis dermatitis

It refers to skin irritation of the lower leg. It is usually related to communication problems.

Causes of Eczema

The precise cause of eczema still remains unknown, but many health experts believe that it develops due to a combination of environmental and genetic factors.

Children are more prone to develop eczema if a parent has it. If both parents have atopic status, the risk is even greater.

Certain environmental factors may reveal symptoms of eczema. These factors include:


These include soaps, detergents, shampoos, disinfectants, fresh fruits, meats, and vegetable juices.


Dust mites, pets, pollen, and mold can all lead to eczema. This is known as allergic eczema.


These include bacteria such as viruses,  Staphylococcus aureus, and some fungi.

Hot and cold temperatures

Too hot and too cold weather, high and low humidity, and exudation from workouts can bring out eczema.


Eggs, nuts, dairy products, and soy products, seeds, and wheat can cause eczema.


It is not a direct cause of eczema, but it can make the symptoms worse.


Changes in their hormone levels in women, such as during pregnancy and at some points in the menstrual cycle, may increase symptoms of eczema.

Symptoms of Eczema

Symptoms of atopic dermatitis can vary depending on the age of the person who has it.

Atopic dermatitis is common in infants, with dry and crusted patches appearing on the skin. These patches often have severe itching.

Continuous rubbing and scratching can cause skin infections. Learn to identify infected eczema.

In most cases, however, eczema is mild. Common symptoms of atopic dermatitis are:

  • Dry, scaly skin
  • Skin whitening
  • Itching
  • Open, crusted, or weeping sores

Some symptoms of eczema differ among people with darker skin. 

People with severe eczema will require more intensive treatment to relieve their symptoms.

The condition of most people develops before the age of 5. However, an estimated 60% of children will no longer show symptoms by adolescence.

People with the condition will often experience periods of time when their symptoms worsen, followed by periods of time when their symptoms will improve or become apparent.

Symptoms may vary in children and adults.

Symptoms in Infants

The following atopic dermatitis symptoms are common in infants under 2 years of age:

  • Rash on the scalp and cheeks
  • Rashes before fluid leaks
  • Rashes that can cause excessive itching, which can interfere with sleep

Symptoms in Children

The following atopic dermatitis symptoms are common in children 2 years and older:

  • Rashes visible behind the elbows or creases of the knees
  • Rashes visible on the neck, wrists, ankles, and creases between the buttocks and legs
  • Bumpy rug
  • Rashes that may be light or dark
  • Skin thickening, also known as lichenification, can then develop into permanent itching.

Symptoms in adults

The following atopic dermatitis symptoms are common in adults:

  • Rashes that are more severe than in children
  • Rashes that usually appear in the elbow or knee or vein of the neck
  • Rashes that cover the body a lot
  • Very dry skin on affected areas
  • Rash that causes permanent itching
  • Skin infections

Adults who developed atopic dermatitis as a child, but no longer experience the condition, may still have dry or easily irritated skin, hand eczema, and eye problems.

The presence of skin affected by atopic dermatitis will depend on how much a person scratches and whether the skin is infected or not. Scratching and rubbing may irritate the skin, increase inflammation and make itching worse.

Treatment of Eczema

There is currently no cure for eczema. Treatment for the condition is intended to heal the affected skin and prevent symptoms from occurring.

The doctor will suggest a treatment plan based on a person’s age, symptoms, and current state of health.

For some people, eczema goes away over time. However, for others, it is a lifelong condition.

The sections below will list some treatment options.

Homemade Treatments

Here are few things that people with eczema can do to maintain skin health and reduce symptoms.

For example, they can try:

  • Lukewarm bath
  • Applying moisturizer to moisture within 3 minutes of bathing
  • Moisturizing every day
  • Dressed in cotton and soft clothes
  • Avoiding rough, rough fibers and tight-fitting clothing
  • Using humidifiers in dry or cold climates
  • Use mild soap or a non-soapy cleanser while washing
  • Take extra precautions to prevent the possibility of eczema in winter
  • Instead of rubbing the skin after bathing or taking a shower, wipe the skin dry with a towel or gently wipe it with a towel.
  • Where possible, avoid rapid movement of temperature and activity due to sweating
  • Learning and Avoiding Personal Eczema Triggers
  • Keeping the nails short to prevent breakage of the skin

People can also try several natural remedies for eczema, including coconut oil, aloe vera, and apple cider vinegar.

The Medications

Doctors can prescribe several medications to treat eczema symptoms, including:

Topical Corticosteroid Creams and Ointments

These are anti-inflammatory medications and should relieve the main symptoms of eczema, such as swelling and itching. People can apply them directly to the skin. There’s a wide range of topical corticosteroid creams and ointments are available online. However, some people may benefit from prescription-power medications.

Systemic corticosteroids

If topical treatments are not effective, doctors may prescribe systemic corticosteroids. These are available in the form of injections or oral tablets. We suggest people should only use them for short periods of time. In addition, it is important to note that stopping these medications can worsen symptoms if the person is not already taking another medication for the condition.


Doctors prescribe antibiotics if there is a bacterial skin infection as well as eczema.

Antiviral and antifungal drugs

They can treat fungal and viral infections.


These can reduce the risk of scratching at night, as they cause drowsiness.

Topical calcineurin inhibitors

This drug suppresses immune system activities. It reduces inflammation and helps prevent flares.

Barrier Repair Moisturizer

These reduce water loss and work to heal the skin.


This involves exposure to UVA or UVB waves. This method can treat moderate dermatitis. A doctor will completely monitor the skin closely throughout the procedure.

Even though the condition itself is not currently curable, each person must have a treatment plan.

In addition, it is important to continue taking care of an area of ​​skin even after it has healed, as it can easily become irritated again.


Eczema is a common inflammatory skin condition. The most common type is called atopic dermatitis.

Eczema is most common in children, but by the time they reach adolescence, the majority is out of it.

Although currently there is no cure, people can treat and prevent eczema flames by using home remedies, moisturizers, medications, and lifestyle changes.

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